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TA0038 डेटा पत्रक PDF( Datasheet डाउनलोड )


डेटा पत्रक - DC ACCURATE FSK MODULATOR - RF

भाग संख्या TA0038
समारोह DC ACCURATE FSK MODULATOR
मैन्युफैक्चरर्स RF 
लोगो RF लोगो 
पूर्व दर्शन
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<?=TA0038?> डेटा पत्रक पीडीएफ

TA0038 pdf
TA0038
13
fractional number over the cycle rate of the pro-
grammed bits. Different programmed bits can generate
different fractional numbers and thus different synthe-
sized frequencies. If b is the number of bits in the
counter and s is the programmed word, then the frac-
tional number generated is:
# of Qa states per cycle = 2b-s
# of 0s per cycle = 2b-s-1
Then fractional n = 2b-s-1
The synthesized frequency can then be calculated as
F(ref)*(N+n). If s and n(s) represent the space fre-
quency and m and n(m) represent the mark frequency,
then the peak to peak frequency deviation can be cal-
culated as F(ref)*(n(s)-n(m)). This method can pro-
duce smaller deviations with fewer dividers than the
previous method but offers fewer selections from which
to chose.
A simple form of this technique is described in Figure
1. It is implemented with a 4-bit counter and the values
of s and m are chosen such that only 1 of the 4 bits is
different. Therefore, the data to be modulated onto the
carrier is used to set or clear that divider every cycle.
An infinite numbers of cycles can occur at either the
mark of space frequency without correction by the PLL
therefore making this modulator accurate down to DC.
Load
4 -b it
C o u n te r
A Qa
B Qb
C Qc
D Qd
C lk
C arry
Load out
Modulus
C on tro l
P re s c ale r
Div. by
N / N+1
Phase
D e te c to r
FSK O utput
VCO
R e fe re n c e
O scillator
Reference Oscillator
Load "5"
Carry out
Mod. control (Q a)
Load "7"
Carry out
Mod. control (Q a)
CDE F 5 6 7 8 9 ABCDE F 5 6 7 8 9
Duty Cycle 'n'= 5/11 = 0.454
CDE F 7 8 9 ABCDE F 7 8 9 ABCD
Duty Cycle 'n' = 4/9 = 0.444
Figure 1. DC Accurate FSK Modulator
In the example of Figure 1, a 4-bit counter is used to
control the divider ratio of the prescaler in a PLL syn-
thesizer. The Qa output toggles high and low except
when the carry out is asserted. Then the Qa output
stays high with the correct load value. For a loaded
value of ‘5’, the Qa output will be low for 5 out of the 11
states of the counter, (16 -5-1)/2. This sets up a ratio
or duty cycle of n=.454. The ‘B’ bit of the counter can
be changed from a 0 to a 1 to change the load value
from 5 to 7. In this case the Qa output is low for 4 out of
9 states, ((16-7-1)/2) for a duty cycle of n=.444. The
ratios modify the prescaler to produce an output fre-
quency with a fractional divide by ratio, that is 128.454
or 128.444. Therefore the output frequencies differ by
(128.454 - 128.444) times the reference oscillator. The
rate of change on the modulus control pin is very high
relative to the PLL loop bandwidth so the changes are
averaged or smoothed out over time.
A simple hardware implementation of a radio link using
this method is described here. A family of transmitter or
transceiver ICs from RF Micro Devices offer the inter-
nal PLL and dual modulus prescaler which can be
used in this design. The RF2513 was chosen to dem-
onstrate a simple low cost transmitter for USA ISM
band applications. The RF2513 contains all the active
circuitry necessary to implement a single IC FSK trans-
mitter; a reference crystal oscillator, PLL, dual modulus
prescaler, VCO, TX buffer amp, and PA. The RF2513
also has an internal varactor for tuning the VCO. By
using printed inductors for the resonators, the external
component count is minimized. A 74HC161 4-bit
counter is used to implement the counter and a
74HC04 is used for the necessary inversion to load the
counter and to buffer the reference oscillator used for
the clock. The schematic of the final circuit is shown in
Figure 2.
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Figure 2. Example Schematic of DC Accurate
Modulator
13-188
Copyright 1997-2000 RF Micro Devices, Inc.

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